8 Career Overall Rank
20 2016 Market Rank
Works by William Barak are most notable in the market for their rarity. With a total of 18 recorded sales dating back as far as 1975 his only recorded failures at auction, other than a boomerang offered at Lawson Menzies in 2005, occurred prior to 1990.
Only one sale of a work on canvas has ever been recorded. The painting executed in natural earth pigments, charcoal and pencil on linen was a gift from the artist to Mrs. G.M. Davies in 1895 and measured 60 x 75.5 cm. It achieved the artist’s then highest result at auction when sold for $74,000 against a pre-sale estimate of $30,000-50,000 as long ago as November 1998. Over the following decade only two other works transcended this result, however when tis lone work on linen was finally re-offered in 2009 it created a new record at a stratospheric $504,000. The record stood until 2016 when a work on paper, fresh to the market, was offered for sale by Amina and Franco Bellgiorno-Nettis through Bonhams. Ceremony,1897 carried a pre-sale estimate of $180,000-250,000 but by the time the dust had settled it was hammered down for $420,000 or $512,400 including buyer's premium.
In 2004, an untitled ceremonial work created in 1895 sold for $59,000, well within the market estimate of $50,000-80,000. Yet this was notable as the first work in the course of almost a decade to do so. Yet so rare are Barak's works that no other work (apart from a boomerang) appeared for sale over the following 5 years and his career average was $22,939 (If sales prior to 1998 were eliminated that average would jump to $65,538). However, 2009 saw his overall average reach $73,184 in spite of early sales at low prices. This was in part due to the sale of an untitled work on paper for $144,000, in the wake of a stellar sale for over half a million dollars some months earlier.
It should be noted that not all of Barak’s works have had success in the secondary market, for various reasons. In 2005 a decorated throwing boomerang with a high estimate of $1,500 failed to sell. All other unsold works came to auction prior to 1990. Two watercolours seem to have been overestimated at $15,000-18,000 at that time.
The recent prominence afforded this artist with a reassessment of his contribution to Australian art through a major exhibition and catalogue produced by the National Gallery of Victoria led to spectacular sales at auction. Barak's AAMI rating of 5.6236 in 2013 jumped from 2.441 in 2008. In 2009, William Barak leapt to 7th place in the list of the most important Aboriginal artists of all time yet his works rarely appear for sale. In fact not a single work appeared at auction between 2009, when his former record was set, and 2016 when it was broken. Expect works by this artist to generate a flurry of attention from informed collectors whenever they appear for sale, and his record price to leap when anything of real quality appears into the future.
William Barak was one of the seminal Indigenous artists of Australia’s early colonial period. His life and art were characterised by the duality inherent in his strong tribal identity and his status as an important intermediary in the cultural dialogue that took place between the black and white inhabitants of the early Victorian settlement. While he was renowned amongst early historians and anthropologists for his stories of Aboriginal life, his art became the vehicle he used toward the end of his life, to express his continued sense of connection with traditional life. His paintings, principally created during the 1880’s and 1890’s, are essentially nostalgic in that his subject remained exclusively the life he had experience prior to the point at which he began to be integrated into colonial society.
In 1835, when just 11 years of age Barak attended the signing of John Batman’s treaty with his Wurundjeri clansmen, which led to the establishment of Melbourne. As a young man he joined the Native Mounted Police having left his native community in 1844. At this time he plight of Aboriginal people in colonial Australia had become parlous. 'The Noble Savage myth had collapsed,' wrote Robert Hughes in his first book, The Art of Australia 'and the native had become the butt of every colonial joke' (1966: 42).
It had improved, but only marginally by the time Barak was painting, almost half a decade later. It occurred that, in the later decades of the eighteenth century, Barak did not have a traditional society to return to. His people, the Wurundjeri, had suffered food deprivation and introduced diseases as a consequence of the pastoralisation of Port Phillip land. While Barak was perceived as a figure of successful Aboriginal integration, he used his position to the advantage of the surviving Aboriginal community of the time. Throughout his life he was a seminal figure in the fight for land rights around the Port Phillip region – remarkable, as one of the earliest formal claims to land rights in Australia. His argument to institute viable agricultural reserves was taken seriously by the local government in Melbourne, and resulted in the establishment of the Corranderk Aboriginal Reserve on Badger Creek. Later, Barak instigated an investigation into the continuing problems in the region through the Corranderk inquiry of 1881, prompted by a proposal to remove the Aboriginal station in the area.
Barak found himself accepted into a particularly high ranking white community at Corranderk, where he lived and painted in his later life. He lived for a certain time with the De Pur family, and also the widow Ann Bon, both high ranking society names. Bon was crucial to the promotion of Barak’s art in Australia and overseas, sending several of his drawings back to England where they attracted some attention. What fascinated the public and buyers of the late nineteenth century was the anthropological aspect of Barak’s drawings, in line with the then prevailing interest in ‘primitivism’ and pre-colonial life. While it seems that Bon and the Dr Purs were motivated by genuine altruism, the envisaged 'promoter-protector' role of Bon sits somewhat awkwardly now; and it is impossible to escape the fact that Barak lived with the De Purs out of some necessity.
Despite his ongoing activism, the cast of Barak as a remnant of the traditional Aboriginal society of South-Eastern Australia, the last ‘noble savage’ even, continued to dominate his art. His painting of ceremony, as a primary subject matter, is inherently related to his personal struggle as an Aboriginal person estranged from his people. It is a story, which may be located, more generally, in the fight for land rights of the time. And yet, no explanation accompanies Barak’s drawings – he himself declined to elaborate on them – and, as a consequence, the deeper significance of his drawings has never been fully understood. It was only in the latter part of the twentieth century that their artistic merit was really recognised. Unlike the meanings inherent in the work of the contemporary Papunya Tula artists of the early 1970’s, there was no Geoff Bardon to draw accompanying sketches illustrating the story behind their art; with Barak, meaning is often ambiguous, and the symbology of his work varies greatly. However in common with the Papunya artists a century later, Barak never painted his contemporary context. His entire oeuvre depicts the past as he looks back into pre-colonial times. The repetition of his subject matter, ceremony, as a recurring motif, is an expression of a culture that Barak had by then lost. It was accompanied by a deep feeling of longing, a yearning. In Remembering Barak, his niece, Joy Murphy-Wandin wrote, ‘I see scars so deep they bring tears to my eyes and a crushing pain within my heart – a lonely, heartbroken man desperate for the return of his family, his people, and his culture’ (2003: 6).
Despite the loss of their specific meaning, from a contemporary perspective, Barak’s paintings are a direct visual translation of his traditional culture. They speak a complex visual language. Barak drew stylistically from the traditional visual art of South-eastern Australia. His composition is typically geometric, as human figures and animals are arranged in patterns so dense as to be evocative of chiaroscuro designs. The natural world is drawn as rather more a feature than a background to the composition – each item; flora or fauna, is totemic and bears significance; often in direct relation to the human figures. Aboriginal figures wearing possum skin cloaks are each imbued with an individual personality, such that no two figures are the same. Indeed, the small idiosyncrasies drawn into the figures and objects that appear in Barak’s work may be understood in terms of a symbolism grounded in traditional forms of representation. The designs that appear on the possum skin cloaks and carved weapons are characteristic of certain regions. Body markings are painted in the fashion of miny’ti (sacred designs) demarcating identity and place. Meaning is often ambiguous, where artefacts commonly hold multiple meanings that vary depending on the context and depicted usage.
In terms of materials, Barak worked with naturally occurring pigments - charcoal, and red and yellow ochres - combining these with European colorants. Natural pigments mixed in a wash with barium sulphate and ivory black allowed for a greater range of tone and intensity. The green and blue hues, which occur in several of Barak’s drawings, are probably European watercolours. Andrew Sayers (1994) draws an analogy between Barak’s method of combining these materials and the position of Barak himself, situated between his traditional life and European society. However overwhelmingly his use of colour is restrained and, most commonly, executed in materials either from the earth or strongly related to it.
Although largely forgotten or overlooked for almost a century, the figure of William Barak, the artist, has taken on an almost mythical status over the past decade. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century William Barak’s artworks were largely entered in to museum collections in Europe, with the largest concentrations in the ethnographic museums of Neuchatel, Berlin and Dresden.
In 2003 the National Gallery of Victoria staged the important exhibition Remembering Barak at the Ian Potter Centre, no doubt prompted by the recent surge of interest in Barak as person of cultural significance in Australian art history, and the exponential increase in market demand for his work. However those paintings and drawings still in private hands are rare indeed and it will only be the luckiest of collectors that will be fortunate to personally own one.
Sayers, Andrew. 1994. Aboriginal Artists of the Nineteenth Century. Australia. Oxford University Press .
Owen, Wendy (ed). 2003. Remembering Barak. Australia. Ian Potter Centre, National Gallery of Victoria.
Hughes, Robert. 1966. The Art of Australia. Victoria. Penguin Books .
Wurundjeri Tribal Lands
Graphics, Watercolour Paints on Paper , Drawing